Child Sexual Abuse Material: Model Legislation & Global Review

9th Edition

details

Date of publication:  01 Nov 2018 Publisher:  International Centre for Missing and Exploited Children (ICMEC) Publication type:  Newsletter / Review / Bulletin

Research  began  in  November  2004, and the 1st  Edition  of  Child  Pornography:  Model  Legislation  & Global Review was published in April 2006, reviewing legislation in the then 184 INTERPOL member countries.  The  report  has  been  updated  regularly.  Now  in  its  9th Edition,  the  report  includes  196  countries and has become a globally-utilized tool for policymakers, law enforcement agencies, child protection experts and organizations, industry partners, and others. 
ICMEC’s research looks at a core set of criteria to gain a full understanding of national legislation on the issue. In particular, we are looking to see if national legislation: 
(1)  exists with specific regard to CSAM;  
(2)  provides a definition of CSAM;  
(3)  criminalizes technology-facilitated CSAM offenses;
(4)  criminalizes the knowing possession of CSAM, regardless of the intent to distribute; and 
(5)  requires Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to report suspected 
CSAM to law enforcement or to some other mandated agency. 
The   model   legislation  consists   of   13   fundamental topics/provisions   that   are   essential   to   a   comprehensive legislative strategy to combat child sexual abuse material.
 It is divided into five parts: 
(1) Definitions; (2) Offenses; (3) Mandatory Reporting; 
(4) Industry Responsibility ; and (5) Sanctions and  Sentencing.  This  is  followed  by  an  overview  of  data  retention  as well as related  regional  and  -4-international law, and a discussion of the implementation and enforcement of national legislation. The 
final section contains a global legislative review with country
-specific information.
It  is  important  to  note  that  the  legislative  review  ccompanying  the model  legislation  is  not  about  criticism,  but  rather  about  assessing  the  current  state  and  awareness  of  the  problem  and  learning  from one another’s experiences. Additionally, a lack of legislation specific to CSAM does not mean that other forms of child sexual exploitation and child abuse are not criminalized.

Research  began  in  November  2004, and the 1st  Edition  of  Child  Pornography:  Model  Legislation  & Global Review was published in April 2006, reviewing legislation in the then 184 INTERPOL member countries.  The  report  has  been  updated  regularly.  Now  in  its  9th Edition,  the  report  includes  196  countries and has become a globally-utilized tool for policymakers, law enforcement agencies, child protection experts and organizations, industry partners, and others. 
ICMEC’s research looks at a core set of criteria to gain a full understanding of national legislation on the issue. In particular, we are looking to see if national legislation: 
(1)  exists with specific regard to CSAM;  
(2)  provides a definition of CSAM;  
(3)  criminalizes technology-facilitated CSAM offenses;
(4)  criminalizes the knowing possession of CSAM, regardless of the intent to distribute; and 
(5)  requires Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to report suspected 
CSAM to law enforcement or to some other mandated agency. 
The   model   legislation  consists   of   13   fundamental topics/provisions   that   are   essential   to   a   comprehensive legislative strategy to combat child sexual abuse material.
 It is divided into five parts: 
(1) Definitions; (2) Offenses; (3) Mandatory Reporting; 
(4) Industry Responsibility ; and (5) Sanctions and  Sentencing.  This  is  followed  by  an  overview  of  data  retention  as well as related  regional  and  -4-international law, and a discussion of the implementation and enforcement of national legislation. The final section contains a global legislative review with country-specific information.
It  is  important  to  note  that  the  legislative  review  ccompanying  the model  legislation  is  not  about  criticism,  but  rather  about  assessing  the  current  state  and  awareness  of  the  problem  and  learning  from one another’s experiences. Additionally, a lack of legislation specific to CSAM does not mean that other forms of child sexual exploitation and child abuse are not criminalized

Topics Addressed
Fundamental topics addressed in the model legislation portion of this report include:
(1)Defining “child” for the purposes of CSAM as anyone under the age of 18, regardless of the age of sexual consent;
(2)Defining “child sexual abuse material,” and ensuring that the definition includes technology-specific terminology;
(3)Creating  offenses  specific  to  CSAM in  the  national  penal  code,  including  criminalizing  the  knowing  possession  of  CSAM,  regardless  of  one’s  intent  to  distribute,  and  including  provisions specific to knowingly downloading or knowingly viewing images on the Internet;
(4)Ensuring  criminal  penalties  for  parents  or  legal  guardians  who  acquiesce  to  their  child’s  participation in CSAM; 
(5)Penalizing those who make known to others where to find CSAM; 
(6)Incorporating grooming provisions;
(7)Punishing attempt crimes;
(8)Establishing mandatory   reporting   requirements   for   healthcare   and   social serviceprofessionals, teachers, law enforcement officers, photo developers, information technology (IT) professionals, ISPs, credit card companies, and banks;
(9)Allowing technology companies to utilize technology tools and mechanisms to identify and remove illicit content from their networks;
(10)Creating data retention and/or preservation olicies/provisions;
(11)Encouraging  cross-sector  collaboration  between  the  private  sector,  law  enforcement,  and  civil society; 
(12)Addressing the criminal liability of children involved in CSAM; and
(13)Enhancing   penalties   for   repeat   offenders,   organized   crime   participants,   and   other   aggravating factors to be considered upon sentencing.

Total number of pages: 
68
Series this is part of: 
Country(s) this content is relevant to: 
International

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