The purpose of this Foundation Report is to contribute to a shared understanding of a human rights-based approach to monitoring children and young people’s well-being. Key messages from this report: 1. Human rights and the well-being of children and young people are interconnected concepts and should not be considered in isolation. 2. A human-rights based monitoring programme on the well-being of children and young people can add value in the following ways: legitimacy through an internationally accepted child rights framework; greater accountability by a joint focus on duty bearers and rights holders; the voice of children and young people on their well-being and enjoyment of their rights; and universality through a focus on marginalised children and young people. 3. Adopting a rights-based approach to monitoring the well-being of children and young people should be systematic in its approach and can include the following steps: i. identification of what is to be monitored; ii. specification of the relevant rights; iii. connection of the rights to stated government outcomes; iv. identification of government actions to implement these rights; v. measurement of progress to track improvements. The Children and Youth Programme through the UNESCO chairs will work collaboratively to promote a rights-based approach to monitoring activity in Ireland and Northern Ireland. The Children and Youth Programme will adopt this approach in its Special Report Series focusing on: education, mental health, youth justice and civic participation over the next few months. The Special Report Series will illustrate how a rights-based approach to monitoring can be operationalised in practice.