A recent paper from North Carolina State University and the University of South Carolina, "School and Family Factors Predicting Adolescent Cognition Regarding Bystander Intervention in Response to Bullying and Victim Retaliation" explores until now largely neglected factors that contribute to identifying bulling behavior and standing up to bullies. For the purpose of this paper, the researchers conducted a study with 896 pupils from sixth and ninth grade. The study showed peer-to-peer interventions are very effective in combating bulling, as well as that school and family are one of the most important factors motivating bystanders to intervene and stop bulling. Students with good family relationships are more likely to stand up to bulling or other types of aggressive behavior, compared to the children who already experienced discrimination and exclusion. One the link below you can find more about the study results and the research methodology.