Since December 2007, in a series of Council conclusions, the EU has endorsed the Commission’s assessment that there is a powerful EU framework of legislative, financial and policy coordination tools already available to support Roma inclusion, but that more can be done to make them work more effectively.The Council affirmed that it is a joint responsibility of the Member States and the European Union to address the challenge of Roma inclusion, within the scope of their respective and complementary competences, and Pursuant to the Communication ‘Non-discrimination and equal opportunities: A renewed commitment’, COM420. has firmly embedded Roma inclusion into EU policy making. The current Trio Presidency has identified the social and economic integration of the Roma as one of their priorities. Measures to overcome Roma exclusion need to be set within the wider framework of European equality, inclusion, and growth policies and to optimise the use of the legal and financial instruments available also to mainstream society. The overall objective is an inclusive society, not a new form of ethnic segregation: any progress which can be achieved in the area of Roma inclusion represents progress too in the inclusion of all ethnic minorities in the EU and vice-versa. The aim of this Communication, ahead of the 2nd Roma Summit, is to indicate how the European Union will develop its contribution to the full social and economic integration of the Roma, on the basis of the progress achieved.